Vol 2-1 Research

Evaluation of structural myocardial changes during chronic hypertensive states in rats

Alexandar A. Iliev1*, Georgi N. Kotov1, Iva N. Dimitrova2 and Boycho V. Landzhov1

1Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria

2Department of Cardiology, University Hospital ‘St. Ekaterina’, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria

Introduction: Spontaneously hypertensive rats are often used as a model of arterial hypertension in humans. Cardiomyocytic hypertrophy, focal myocytolysis and ventricular fibrosis are only a part of the alterations in the morphology of the myocardium observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats with the progression of hypertension. The present manuscript reviews our studies on spontaneously hypertensive rats, with focus on the microscopic changes in the myocardial architectonics and analysis of several morphometric parameters.

Materials and methods: A total of 12 male spontaneously hypertensive rats, distributed in two age groups, each containing six animals: 1-month-old (young) and 6-months-old (adult) were used. We also used 12 male normotensive Wistar rats, distributed in two age groups, each containing six animals: 1-month-old (young) and 6-months-old (adult). Routine haematoxylin and eosin staining and Mallory’s trichrome stain were conducted. Quantitative data were obtained with a computerized system for image analysis NIS-Elements Advanced Research (Ver. 2.30).

Results: Changes in the normal morphology of the myocardium included cardiomyocytic hypertrophy, focal myocytolysis and ventricular fibrosis. As aging progressed, we noted a significant increase in the thickness of the free wall and cross-sectional area of the cardiomyocytes and the cardiomyocytic nuclei and a decrease in cardiomyocytic density.

Conclusion: The manuscript presents a detailed qualitative and quantitative study of changes in the normal structure of the myocardium initiated by arterial hypertension.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3025/2018/1.1109 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Mini Review

Obstructive sleep apnoea in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Screening, postoperative outcomes and perioperative care

Martina Mason*, Ian Smith

Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, CB23 3RE, UK

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common and high prevalence has been described amongst patients undergoing cardiac revascularisation surgery. An excess of postoperative complications has been reported in patients with untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) following surgical procedures, including those undergoing cardiac surgery. This has led some clinicians towards pre-operative screening for OSA though the best screening methodology has not yet been established. Moreover, the effect of screening and of treatment for OSA on surgical outcomes remains unknown. Does current evidence justify screening and treating patients before they present for surgery? Is this leading to potential delay in surgery whilst awaiting sleep diagnostics and commencing the treatment? This review article will examine the available evidence base and endeavour to answer these questions and identify implications for future research.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3025/2018/1.1110 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Case Report

Can't Breath: a case of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis post CABG

Mohsin Khan D.O.1*, Mitchell S. Karl1, Ashwin Durairaj1, and Antonello Santini2

*1Florida Atlantic University, Schmidt School of Medicine, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States

2Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3025/2018/1.1107 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-1 Commentary

Commentary: Impacts of intensive follow-up on the long-term prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients - a single center prospective randomized controlled study in a Chinese population

Ping-Shuan Dong1*, Jing-Jing Jia1, Lai-Jing Du1

*1Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China

Various forms of interventional programs have been suggested to help reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the effects of physician-based interventional program on the long-term disease prognoses of patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A number of studies have demonstrated the intensive secondary prevention provide effective risk factor reduction in coronary artery disease patients, while few studies focused on important cardiovascular outcomes and long-term clinical prognoses. This study is the first prospective randomized controlled study to demonstrate the impact of professional physician-coordinated intensive follow-up on the long-time prognosis of PCI in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in China. We have shown that this intensive follow-up program robustly prolongs the survival time and reduces the controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease control of cardiovascular risk factors, thereby markedly improve the prognosis of PCI in ACS patients. The study was the first to demonstrate the cost-effect benefit of intensive secondary prevention in ACS patients in Chinese populations, and this benefit was long-term.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3025/2018/1.1117 View / Download Pdf